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Tel: 020 8983 1003
Email: info@stammeringineducation.net

Books and Articles

All the books and articles listed have comprehensive bibliographies for further reading and many are available on loan, to BSA members and SLTs, from the BSA library.

Information for schools in Scotland

Research perspective

Stammering is a complex condition and is the subject of academic research, particularly into its causes and the efficacy of therapies.

BSA Research Committee

In recognition of the importance of research this has been set up with a distinguished panel, representing all areas of interest in stammering, to encourage research and dissemination. The committee may be contacted through the Association.

Causes of stammering

The causes of stammering have been debated for many years and current thinking focuses on brain activity.

  • De Nil, L. (1999) 'Stuttering: a neurophysiologic perspective', in Bernstein-Ratner, N. and Healey, E.C. (eds) Stuttering Research and Practice) Bridging the Gap. Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum. (pp. 85-102).
  • Sommer, M. et alia (2002) 'Disconnection of speech-relevant brain areas in persistent developmental stutteri The Lancet, Volume 360, Issue 9330, p.380. 

Stammering and therapy 

  • Hayhow, R, Cray, A. M., Enderby, P., (2002) 'Stammering and therapy views of people who stammer'. Journal Fluency Disorders, 27 pp.1-17. 

Collaborative practice 

  • Fleming, P. et alia (1997) Speech and Language Difficulties in Education for Teachers and Speech and Language Therapists: Approaches to Collaborative Practice. London, Wright Winslow. 
  • DfEE (2000) Provision of Speech and Language Therapy Services to Children with Special Educational Need~ London: HMSO. 
  • McCartney, E. (ed.) (1999) Speech/Language Therapists and Teachers Working Together. A Systems Approch to Collaboration. London: Whurr. 

Classroom strategies 

There is no current research evidence to support prescriptive strategies for children who stammer, but there are methods that can be recommended from practice as being helpful. 

  • Byrne, R. and Wright, L. (2008) Stammering. Advice for all ages. London, Sheldon Press 
  • Lees, R M. (2000) 'It takes two to stammer', in MacKay, G. and Anderson, C. (eds) Pragmatic Difficulties of Communication. London: David Fulton Publishers. 
  • Rustin, L. et al (2001) Stammering. A Practical Guide for Teachers and Other Professionals. London: David Fulton Publishers. 
  • Stewart, T. and Turnbull, J. (1995) Working with Dysfluent Children. Oxford, Winslow Press. pp. 131-5. 

Pupils' perceptions of other pupils who stammer 

There is evidence to suggest that children who stammer are more likely to be teased or bullied, because other children hold negative perceptions of children who stammer. 

  • Franck, A.L. et alia (2003) 'School-age children's perceptions of a person who stutters'. Journal of Fluency Disorders 28, pp 1-15. 

Teachers' Perceptions of children who stammer 

Research has shown that teachers tend to view children who stammer as shy and insecure, but there is no evidence to support this. 

  • Lees, R M. (1999) 'Stammering children in school', in McCartney, E. (ed.) Speech/Language Therapists and Teachers Work ing Together. A Systems Approach to Collaboration. Lo n don: Whurr. p p.1 36-7. 
  • Stewart, T. and Turnbull, J. (1995) Working with Dysfluent Children. Oxford: Winslow Press. p. 128. 

Linguistic factors 

The relationship between language development and stammering continues to be investigated. 

  • Rustin, L. et alia (2001) Stammering. A Practical Guide for Teachers and Other Professionals. London: David Fulton Publishers. pp.11-12. 


As a therapist may ask a teacher to support therapy goals in the classroom, some basic knowledge may be helpful. 

  • Guitar, B. (1998) Stuttering: An Integrated Approach to its Nature and Treatment (2nd ed). Baltimore: Williams and Wilkins. 
  • Onslow, M. and Packman, A. (eds) (1999) The Handbook of Early Stuttering Intervention. San Diego, CA: Singular Publishing Group. 
  • Rustin, L. et alia (2001) Stammering. A Practical Guide for Teachers and Other Professionals. London: David Fulton Publishers. Chapter 2 p1 5. 
  • Sheehan, J. (1970) Stuttering:Research and Therapy. New York: Harper and Row. 
  • Starkweather, C.W. and Gottwald, S. R. (1990) 'The demands and capacities model 11: clinical applications', Journal of Fluency Disorders 15, pp 143-157. 

Information for young people, parents and teachers  

  • Lewis, J. (1997) The Stammering Handbook. London: Vermilion. 
  • Stewart, T and Turnbull, J. (1996) Helping Children Cope with Stammering. London: Sheldon Press. 
  • Stewart, T. and Turnbull, J. (1997) Coping With Stammering. London: Sheldon Press.

The BSA Library has many books and other resources on stammering which are available to members